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All That You Need To Know About PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE (PUD)

PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE (PUD) is a general term for ulcers that occur in the stomach and duodenum (upper part of the small intestine). An ulcer in the stomach is known as gastric ulcer, while that in the duodenum/upper part of the intestine is known as duodenal ulcer.
PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE (PUD) is an open sore that occur in the lining of the stomach or upper part of the small intestine. The most common symptom of PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE (PUD) is stomach pain.

Causes of PUD
  • H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori): H. pylori causes an increase in pepsin secretion.
  • Long term use of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as Aspirin, Ibuprofen

Risk factors
  1. Alcohol consumption
  2. Smoking
  3. Eating spicy food
  4. Physiological stress
  5. Increase in intake of caffeine 

  1. Medical history/Family history
  2. Physical examination
  3. Breath test: it is used to detect H. pylori. The individual or patient is asked to eat or drink something containing radioactive carbon in the stomach. After an hour the individual is asked to blow into the bag which is sealed. If the person is infected with H. pylori the breath sample will contain radioactive carbondioxide.
  4. Biopsy
  5. Gastroscopy: which is a form of endoscopy 
  6. Barium contrast x ray

  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Infection/Perforation of the wall of the GIT
  • Gastric outlet obstruction
  • Signs and Symptoms
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Bloating or Belching
  • Feeling of fullness
  • nausea
  • Hematemesis (vomiting of blood)
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Heart burn
  • Melana

  • By protecting yourself from infection by washing of hands with soap and water always
  • By eating properly cooked food
  • By taking enough rest
  • Avoid the intake of alcohol
  • Use pain killers as prescribed
  • Reduce stressful activities
  • Reduce intake of milk
  • Consider food containing probiotics such as yoghurt, ages cheeses etc.

  • Antibiotics such as Tetracycline, clarithromycin, Metronidazole (flagyl), Amoxicillin etc.
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) such as labeprazole, pantoprazole, omeprazole
  • Acid blockers/H2 Blockers such as Ranitidine, Cimetidine
  • Antacids

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